Halāl (Arabicحلال‎‎ ḥalāl, “permissible”), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law. It is frequently applied to permissible food and drinks.

In the Quran, the word halal is contrasted with haram (forbidden).[1] In Islamic jurisprudence this binary opposition was elaborated into a more complex classification known as “the five decisions“: mandatoryrecommendedneutralreprehensible, and forbidden.[2] Islamic jurists disagree on whether the term halal covers the first three or the first four of these categories.[2] In recent times, Islamic movements seeking to mobilize the masses and authors writing for a popular audience have emphasized the simpler distinction of halal and haram.[1][3]

The term halal is particularly associated with Islamic dietary laws. The Dubai Chamber of Commerce estimated the global industry value of halal food consumer purchases to be $1.1 trillion in 2013, accounting for 16.6 percent of the global food and beverage market, with an annual growth of 6.9 percent.[4] Growth regions include Indonesia ($197 million market value in 2012) and Turkey ($100 million).[5] The European Union market for halal food has an estimated annual growth of around 15 percent and is worth an estimated $30 billion.[6]